Race inequality in Wales
In 2009, there was estimated to be 69,000 people from BME groups living in Wales.
Cardiff has 44,600 (13.8% of the population of Cardiff) and Newport has 9,200 (6.6% of the population of Newport).
The least ethnically diverse communities are Caerphilly 1,300 (0.8%), Blaenau Gwent 600 (0.9%), Monmouthshire 900 (1%) and Torfaen 1,100 (1.2%). The ethnic diversity for the populations of other local authority areas are also low in comparison with Cardiff and Newport: Rhonda Cynon Taff 3,200 (2.6%), Merthyr Tydfil 1,300 (2.3%), the Vale of Glamorgan 3,200 (2.6%) and Bridgend 3,000 (3.2%).
Half the Muslim population lives in Cardiff.
More than one in five of the population is Muslim in six ‘Lower Layer Super Output Areas’ (the categories used in the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation) in Cardiff, with two such areas recording this density in Newport.
There are specific needs and issues relating to language and culture, more are likely to come from low income families, suffer poorer living conditions, gain lower educational qualifications, and have higher rates of some health conditions. Some ethnic groups have unemployment rates three times higher than white men. Men from black Caribbean, black African, Bangladeshi and mixed ethnic groups have the highest unemployment rates (13 to 14 per cent) compared to the rates for white British and white Irish men (5 per cent in each case). Black people in their early 20s are twice as likely to be not in employment, education or training as White people.
Know your rights
Race discrimination occurs when a person is treated less favourably because of race, colour, nationality, ethnic or national origin.
Race discrimination covers four areas:
direct discrimination: treating someone less favourably because of their actual or perceived race, or because of the race of someone with whom they associate
indirect discrimination: can occur where there is a policy, practice or procedure which applies to all workers, but particularly disadvantages people of a particular race. An example could be a requirement for all job applicants to have GCSE Maths and English: people educated in countries which don't have GCSEs would be discriminated against if equivalent qualifications were not accepted. Indirect discrimination can only be justified if it is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim
harassment: when unwanted conduct related to race has the purpose or effect of violating an individual's dignity or creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment for that individual
victimisation: unfair treatment of an employee who has made or supported a complaint about racial discrimination.
In very limited circumstances, there are some jobs which can require that the job-holder is of a particular racial group. This is known as an 'occupational requirement'. One example is where the job-holder provides personal welfare services to a limited number of people and those services can most effectively be provided by a person of a particular racial group because of cultural needs and sensitivities.
It is unlawful to discriminate against a job-seeker, worker or trainee on grounds of race, colour, nationality, and ethnic or national origins. Employers should ensure they have policies in place which are designed to prevent discrimination in:
recruitment and selection
training and development
selection for promotion
discipline and grievances
countering bullying and harassment.
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